University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Vienna, Austria
Embodied HANPP of feed and animal products: tracing pressure on ecosystems along trilateral livestock supply chains 1986-2013
Global livestock supply chains link producers of feed, livestock farmers, and final consumers, through international trade in (1) feed and (2) animal products. Studies analyzing the telecoupled pressure on ecosystems induced by livestock supply chains have so far not been able to distinguish between trade in feed and in animal products. We quantified pressure on ecosystems embodied in livestock supply chains based on the global flows of 174 feed and animal products for the years 1986 to 2013, using the embodied Human Appropriation of Net Primary Production indicator. 12% of livestock’s pressure on ecosystems was linked to trade across world regions. Pressure linked to trade was nearly equally distributed between trade in feed and animal products. We discuss options to reduce livestock’s pressures on ecosystems along livestock supply chains from a food theory perspective, especially reducing production and consumption in high consuming countries, and regulating international supply chains.
ICTA-UAB, Barcelona, Spain
Women murdered at the frontlines of environmental justice conflicts
This study illustrates how, despite the diversity of women environmental defenders and their movements worldwide, there are near-universal patterns of violence threatening their survival. Gender informs violence against environmental defenders, who not only shoulder disproportionate environmental burdens, but also face misogyny informing their vulnerability and in retaliation to their advocacy. Yet gender remains overlooked despite how women defenders make up a large proportion of those at the frontlines. Through comparative political ecology, this research analyzes cases from the Environmental Justice Atlas, an online open-access inventory of environmental distribution conflicts, in which one or more women were assassinated while fighting a diverse array of extractive and polluting projects. Although the stories showcase a breadth of places, conflicts, social-class backgrounds, and other circumstances between women defenders, most cases featured the same near-universal pattern of multinational large-scale extractive companies granted impunity from governments to violently suppress women defenders opposing their harmful projects.
Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria
Quantifying energy needs for modelling multidimensional poverty
Pathways that limit global warming generally do not include detailed representations of inequality. Distributional considerations are generally not dynamically modelled, and multidimensional inequality or broader wellbeing is rarely considered. Our research uses an energy perspective to link multidimensional poverty and climate. We assess gaps in the provisioning of selected human needs using the Decent Living Standards framework. On a global scale, we find that energy for eradicating poverty and sustaining well-being is not likely to pose a threat for mitigating climate change, with current technologies. For many poor countries in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia significant growth in national energy consumption is required alongside policies that stimulate a more equal access to services. This work juxtaposes sectoral energy needs for supporting a decent life with residual “affluence”, identifying both gaps and mitigation potentials. We highlight this as a method of linking human development with planetary boundaries.